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Micro Environment Subsistence System (M.E.S.S.)


Mess - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5

Composting Edit

Breakdown of complex biological materials. Non-edibile crop residue, food scraps, humanure, etc., need to be broken down into simpler substances for plants to easily access the needed components. This can be done in a variety of ways. Composting in containers that maintain appropriate humidity & temperature for the decay organisms. The finer the items are shred, the greater the surface area and the easier the organisms can proceed. These organisms, while breaking own you scraps, also use them for food.

Rotten Odor - Probably excess moisture (anaerobic conditions). Turn the pile, or add dry, porous material, such as sawdust, wood chips, or straw. It could also be compaction (again anaerobic conditions)

Ammonia Odor - Excess moisture or perhaps too much nitrogen (lack of carbon). Turn the pile, add high carbon material, such as sawdust, wood chips, or straw.

Low Pile Temperature - Pile too small, make pile bigger or insulate sides. Insufficient moisture, add water while turning pile. Poor aeration, turn pile. Lack of nitrogen, mix in nitrogen sources such as grass clippings or manure. Cold weather, increase pile size, or insulate pile with an extra layer of material such as straw.

High Pile Temperature (greater than 140 degrees Fahrenheit) - Pile too large, reduce pile size. Insufficient ventilation, turn pile. Pests, rats, raccoons, insects, presence of meat scraps or fatty food waste, remove meat and fatty foods from pile, or cover with a layer of soil or sawdust, or build an animal-proof compost bin, or turn the pile to increase temperature Among the larger "helpers" are earthworms. Be sure to select the type which best tolerates your conditions. Most worm composting books I've read recommend Lumbricus rubellus, or red wiggler. It can't take my heat though as well as Eudrilus eugeniae, the African night crawler, which is a surface feeder.

Earthworms prefer a soil with a neutral pH, or slightly alkaline. They need to stay moist, and out of sunlight. They CAN NOT live in rock wool, vermiculite or perlite as on the scale of the worm the products are like shards of broken glass. All earthworms thrive on manure, and consume their body weight in food every day. In the wild earthworms may be malnurished. In your compost bin you may find up to 100,000 earthworms per cubic meter (3,000 earthworms/cubic foot) as commercial growers report. If each worm weighs around a gram, and produces casts of around it's body weight daily, one such bin could produce 100 kg of compost daily.

Earthworms can absorb and carry disease. If you have any doubt as to safety of anything to be added to your compost pile, consider solar sterilization of the item first. You may lose some nutrients, but you avoid contaminating your pile and worms. Earthworm casts are not only considered a fertilizer, but you may find they are so rich in nutrients (see table 1) that hydroponics solutions can be made from soaking their casts. (DeKorne, 1978; Hydro Greenhouse Corp, 1983). Like most animals earthworms accumulate toxins in their bodies, which would be concentrated in any creature fed the worms. Perhaps therefore early generations should be recycled to outside of your food web.

Table 1. Properties of earthworm casts and of soil from cultivated fields. Compound Casts 0-6" Soil Depth 8-16" Soil Depth Total N 0.0353 0.246 0.081 Organic C (%) 5.17 3.35 1.11 C : N ratio 14.7 13.8 13.8 Nitrate nitrogen (ppm) 21.9 4.7 1.7 Available phosphorus (ppm) 150.0 20.8 8.3 Exchangeable calcium (ppm) 2,793.0 1,993.0 418.0 " Template:Magnesium (ppm) 492.0 162.0 69.0 " K (ppm) 358.0 32.0 27.0 Total Ca (%) 1.19 0.88 0.91 Total magnesium (%) 0.545 0.511 0.548 Percent saturation 92.9 71.1 55.5 pH 7.0 6.36 6.05 Moisture equivalent (%) 31.4 27.4 21.1 Source: Lunt, H. A. and G. M. Jacobson, The Chemical Composition of Earthworm Casts. Soaking earthworm casts is a means to produce an "organic" hydroponic solution. Soak an equal volume of earthworm casts and water. You may need additional nitrogen. Earthworms are your miniature engineers, opening the soil to allow air and water to flow.

Flies Edit

A perhaps strange sounding approach from THE SURVIVOR Vol. 1. Do you include chickens, fish, etc. in your food plans? Do you need a high protein food source for them? Capture a few flies, and odds are one or more of them will be a female. Envision them in a screened in, escape proof container, with rotting food, sterilized sewage, etc. The SURVIVOR suggests four inch deep plastic trays, in the bottom part of each tray a hole with a patch of rubber with a slit in it through which a nozzle would be inserted. The same kind of slit rubber patch would be over holes in the screen adjacent to each tray. As the maggots ate they would rise to the top to pupate. Pump the new slurry in from the bottom. At one end hang electrified wires to zap the flies, who fall into a removable drawer below, or onto your fish tank or chicken food bin.

Microsymbionts Edit

These can be bacteria or fungi that "infect" the host plant root. As implied by the word symbiont, instead of a debiliating infection there is a two-way benefit. The plant sugar flow to its roots feeds the infecting organism, while the symbiont aids the plant in uptake of water or nutrients from the soil, or in some cases the "fixing" of nitrogen from the air. There are three types of organisms that may form this valuable symbiosis.

Mycorrhiza are a fungus that can essentially provide an extended root system for the plant, and protection for the plant. The fungai extend their threads into a large volume of soil where they explore and extract nutrients from the soil beyond the reach of the plant roots. Some fungi produce hormones that stimulate greater root development.

Rhizobia bacteria may cause some leguminosae (think bean) plant roots to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. The bacteria/plant relationship can be very type-specific, where the legume will form nodules only when infected with a specific rhizobium. Others will form nodules with a range of rhizobia. For your intended crops, and potential surrounding "native" transplant donor sites, pre-research relationships. Rhizobium nodules for transplant should be collected from young roots. The interior of a healthy N2-fixing rhizobium nodules is usually pink, red or brown.

Frankia bacteria also perform nitrogen fixation. These bacteria form their own web, similar to fungus, and independent nitrogen fixing vesicles. And as with rhizobia, can be either broad of plant specific. The interior of a healthy frankia nodules is usually whitish or yellowish.

If you are starting with a sterile medium, you may be able to "transplant" microsymbionts from previous planting sites, or sites in nature where similar plants are doing particularly well. Either approach has risks of course of also transplanting pathogens. The danger can be reduced by collecting only desired "infected" roots and nodules.

The difference between with/without a symbioant, or the right one, can be significant. Wood production in selected trees inoculated with a superior strain can be more than 100% above the naturally inoculated control.

Macrosymbionts Edit

Companion planting. There are combinations of plants that grow better (and worse) next to each other than they do next to a plant the same type. There are numerous materials on the subject. This approach also allows use of a wider range of soil depth, as roots from the different plants seek different nutrients, at different times, and different depths.

Vegies Beneficial Antagonistic Asparagus parsley, tomato, basil onions, potato Basil Most plants Rue Beans Beet, borage, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, cucumber, corn, marigold, squash, strawberry, tomato

  • Reduces the number of corn armyworms
  • Nitrogen-fixing chives, fennel, garlic

leek Beet cabbage, kohlrabi,dwarf beans,onions, Runner Beans ... Broad Beans Potato, lettuce Fennel Broccoli bean, celery, chamomile, dill, mint, nasturtium, onion, potato, sage, rosemary

  • Reduces striped cucumber beetles lettuce, strawberry,

tomato Brussels Sprout bean, celery, dill, hyssop, mint nasturtium, potato, sage, , thyme rosemary, strawberry

Cabbage bean, beet, chamomile, dill, hyssop, mint, nasturtium, onion potato, sage, rosemary

  • Surround cabbages with white-flowering plants to prevent cabbage moth damage. grape,strawberry,

tomato, thyme Carrot bean, chives, leek, onion, pea, lettuce sage, scorzonera, tomato, wormwood

  • Deters onion flies dill, rosemary, radish

Cauliflower bean, beet, celery, chamomile, dill, hyssop, mint, onion oregano, sage, radish potato Celeriac bean, cabbage, leek, onion, tomato ... Celery bean, cabbage, leek, onion, tomato

  • Deters cabbage butterflies parsnip, potato

Corn Artichoke, parsnip,bean, cabbage, cucumber, early potato, lupin, melon, pea, pumpkin, squash ... Cucumber bean, broccoli,carrots, celery, Chinese cabbage, lettuce, pea, radish, tomato rue, sage Eggplant beans,potatopea, tarragon, thyme ... Horseradish potato ... Kohlrabi beet, onion bean, cucumber, pepper, tomato Leeks carrots, celeriac, celery

  • Deters carrot flies, strawberries broad bean, broccoli

Lettuce beet, cabbage, carrots clover, pea, radish, strawberry Beet, beans, parsley, parsnip Melon corn, peanut, sunflower ... Onion beet, cabbage, carrot, chamomile, corn, lettuce, potato, strawberry,, tomato

  • Deters Colorado beetle and carrot flies bean, pea, cucumber, dill, tomato, pumpkin, squash

Pea carrot, corn, cucumber eggplant, lettuce, radish, spinach, tomato, turnip onions, garlic, shallots Pepper basil, carrot, lovage, marjoram, onion, oregano fennel, kohlrabi Potato Broad bean, cabbage, cauliflower, corn, lettuce, onions, peas, petunia, marigold, radish

  • Deters Mexican bean beetle
  • Indian hemp helps protect against late blight - this plant is illegal in some countries - check local regulations apple, pumpkin,

tomato, sunflowers Pumpkin bean, corn, mint, nasturtium, radish, marjoram potato Radish bean, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, lettuce, melon, parsley, tomato

  • Deters many cucmber beetle,root flies,vine borers, and many other pests grape, hyssop, squash,

Spinach cabbage, celery, eggplant, onion pea, strawberry, fruit trees ... Squash bean, corn, mint, nasturtium radish ... Summer Squash bean, corn,, mint, nasturtium radish potato Tomato asparagus, basil, beans, cabbage,, onion, parsley, pea, sage

  • Deters loopers, flea beetles, and whiteflies on cabbage carrot, cauliflower, chives, fennel, potato

Turnip pea ... Zucchini bean, corn, marjoram, mint, nasturtium, radish potato

Flowers as Companions Alyssum Reseeds frequently, gradually breaks up & adds to the organic level of the soil (*esp. white alyssum) Amaranth Pigweed *Attracts ground beetles Alfalfa lucerne reduces corn wireworms Chrysanthemum reduces nematodes Coneflower Rudbeckia Castor Bean controls mosquitoes and nematodes Lupins Good companion for roses

  • Nitrogen fixer

Marigolds Calendula*Deters asparagus beetes, tomato hornworms

Marigolds Tagetes

  • reduce the number of nematodes in soil
  • attract hoverflies (aphid predators)
  • Deters Mexican bean beetles
  • Reduces cabbage pests
  • Good companion for roses

Poppies Suppress weeds (and every other plant) Petunias Repel a number of pests, including Mexican bean beetle, potato bug, and squash bug Wallflower Aids growth of orchard plants


Herbs Anise bean, coriander Deters aphids, fleas, reduces cabbage worms Basil bean, cabbage, tomato

  • Controls a variety of pests

Borage strawberry, tomato

  • Attracts bees, reduces Japanese beetles on potatoes, and deters tomato hornworms Caraway pea

Catnip *Deters ants, aphids, Colardo beetles, darkling beetles, flea beetles, Japanese beetles, squash bugs, weevils. Chamomile cucumber, mint, radish, roses

Chervil carrot, radish Chive *Cures blackspot on roses, deters Japanese beetles, discourages insects from climbing fruit trees, inhibits growth of apple scab Clover deters cabbage root flies Coriander deters Colorado beetles Dandelion Repels Colorado beetles Dead nettle Good companion for fruit trees; Deters potato bud Dill Repels aphids and spider mites Elderberry General insect repellant Eucalyptus general insect repellant Fennel deters aphids Garlic Good companion for fruit trees; general insect repellant, deters Japanese beetles, aphids Horseradish Good companion for fruit trees; deters Colorado beetles Hyssop Good companion for grapes; repels white-cabbage butterfly, flea beetles, insect larvae Lavender cotton Santolinadeters corn wireworms Lemon Balm Attracts bees and helps pollination Milkweed Deters aphids Mustard reduces aphids Nasturtium Give off ethylene gas which helps in early ripening of fruit (though too many may inhibit growth) Reduces aphids, cabbage worms, Colorado beetles; deters wooly aphids, squash bugs and whiteflies. Keep away from broccoli, brussel sprouts, potato, radish, squash. Parsley roses, asparagus

Ragweed Reduces flea beetles Rue Deters beetles and fleas Rosemary Deters bean beetles, white cabbage moths, carrot flies, and many other insects Sage Deters cabbage worms, white cabbage moths, and root maggots Savory Deters Mexican bean beetles Southernwood Deters cabbage moths, carrot flies, aphids Tansy Deters many insects including ants, aphids, cabbage worms, Colorado beetles, Japanese beetles, squash bugs Planted in a ring around fruit trees, helps repel fruit fly Thyme Deters cabbage loopers, cabbage worms, whiteflies Wormwood General insecticide; deters mice and other rodents, slugs & snails. Repels carrot fly "Nature is often hidden; sometimes overcome; seldom extinguished."

Location Edit

Determine the facts, and plan. Determine the true orientation of your property, and the available light exposure positions of the sun throughout the year. Are you planning a roof top garden, or one with light collection / reflection at a height above ground level? Calculate and plan for the appropriate level.

Internal layout Edit

Plan your garden on paper. Calculate quantity of crops, needed area, light exposure, etc. Remember to group plants according to their nutrient needs. Heavy feeders. Asparagus, beet, broccoli *, brussels sprouts, cabbage *, cantaloupe *, cauliflower, celery, colard, corn-sweek *, eggplant *, endive, kale, kohlrabi, lettuce, okra, parsely, pepper, potato, pumpkin, radish, rhubarb, spinach, squash-summer *, strawberry, sunflower, tomato *, watermelon *. Plan for subsequent crops in rotation, minimizing re-planting of the same or related crops in the same family in the same spot Place perennial crops where they are minimally disturbed. Put tall and trellised crops on the north side to avoid shading shorter plants. (* indicates fertilize at least twice)

Light feeders. Carrot, garlic, leek, mustard greens, onion, parsnip, rutabaga, shallot, sweet potato, swiss chard, alfalfa, be4ans, clover, peas, peanut, soybean. Easily survive transplant. Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, eggplant, lettuce, chinese cabbage, sweet potato slips, onion, tomatoes, pepper. Require care in transplant. Beets, carrots, celery, chard, melon (2 true leaves), squash (2 true leaves) NOT usually transplantable. Beans, corn, cucumbers, peas, okra.

Crop selection Edit

Worldwide, around twenty plants constitute the bulk of plants grown for human food. There are however over 20,000 species of edible plants in the world. Look at your lawn. While you can't readily digest mature grass, you can process it into leaf protein, or eat young leaves and shoots.

But there are better options for food crops than a lawn, which would take far too large of an area to obtain sufficient calories and nutrition for a person, as compared to the area which could be fertilized by the effluent of that person.

Calorie crops comparison Edit

Corn: Growing constantly it would take 4000 sq. ft. to feed a person, who would have to eat 25 ears per day.

Rice: Growing constantly it would take 1350 sq. ft. to feed a person, who would have to eat 1.2 lbs. per day.

Potatoes: Growing constantly it would take 900 sq. ft. to feed a person, who would have to eat 5.9 lbs. per day. For optimal yields, an equal amount of sunlight and darkness/day is necessary. Potatoes typically have 50% more waste than edible yield produced.

Sweet Potatoes: Growing constantly it would take 400 sq. ft. to feed a person, and in that it has edible tubers and leaves, the person would eat 0.5 lb. of cooked leaves and 2.6 lb. of tubers per day. For optimal yields, an equal amount of sunlight and darkness/day is necessary.

Amaranthus: From data on the web, growing constantlyt is appears that yield per 100 sq. ft would be around 50 lbs, over a 40 day growing period, or 1.25 lb. per day, which appears to match the daily food calorie needs of a person, who would have to eat 1.17 lbs. per day. Thrives in hot dry weather. Determine Crop Nutrition Efficiency. Calorie and vitamin concentration per unit weight of food, and the yield of a given crop or crop combination per area must be worked out. As mentioned earlier, one of the most efficient crops is sweet potatoes. The edible vs not proportion of a sweet potato plant is far more efficient than the same comparison for corn, where the large stalk, roots, and cobs must be composted before the nutrients "locked up" there are once again available to nourish crops. There are many crops with high calorie yield, high nutrition, and/or multiple edible parts.

Palatable Edit

The garden crops must be something you and your family will eat, and can eat. Consider the volume and weight of food you can consume. I read in ONE CIRCLE that between 4 and 6 pounds per day is the range for most people. That reference works with a list of the following 14 crops. Their book makes a valuable reference. Collards (leaf and stem) Filberts (seed) Garlic (bulb) Leeks (bulb) Onions (bulb) Parsley (stem & leaf) Parsnips (root) Potatoes (tuber) Peanuts (seed) Soybeans (seed) Sunflower (seed) Sweet potatoes (tuber) Turnips (root & leaf) Wheat (seed)

Annual vs Perennial.

Annual crops require significant input, a lot of which is used to grow the unused plant portions. These must then be reduced by composting organisms (themselves using up energy) before further crops can be grown. Perennial crops such as trees put much less "effort" into maintaining their support system. Envision perennial corn fields, with permanently standing stalks. The potential is waiting for the right bio-engineer in the form of Zea diploperennis, a multi year relative of corn.

Annual. Perennial.

Trees. The quintessential perennial crop. Honey Locust. A mesquite, bearing edible “bean” pods, when mature a tree 55’ in diameter may provide 66 lb. of pods, containing 30% (19.8lb.) sugar, 22% (14.5lb. protein), and good quantities of potassium. While this tree DOES NOT fix nitrogen, it is a good “miner” of deep soil nutrients for later use by surface gardens. The pods can be used to make coffee. In a 100 ft. sq. comparison it provides 2.77 lb. of pods, with .83 lb. sugar and .61 lb. protein. Citrus. Citrus is a global favorite. Of the citrus crops, lemon, grapefruit, and orange trees can produce fruit without pollination, where in effect, the fruit is a genetic copy of the mother plant. The provide a better crop growing on rootstock that is not their own, but fortunately are readily "spliced". Varieties are available that produce in the heat of Yuma Arizona to areas with snow.

Moringa Olefara. a small tropical tree that grows to about 25 feet (8 meters). It has edible tuberous roots, fern-like leaves, and seed pods resembling musician drumsticks. The pungent horseradish essence is in all parts of the plant, with the roots used as flavoring and in poultices.

The bark yields substances including moringine and moringinine, the earlier acts as a cardiac stimulant, produes rise of blood pressure, acts on sympathetic nerve endings as well as smooth muscles all over the body, and depresses the sympathetic motor fibers of vessels when eaten in large doses.

Native to northern India it is mentioned as a medicinal plant in ancient Sanskit texts. It is fast growing and possibly the most nutritious of all leaf crops, the leaves are 7% protein and have extremely high levels of folates, vitamin C, carotenes, calcium, iron, and niacin. The seeds yield an edible and high quality oil (ben oil) earlier used to lubricate fine mechanical swiss watches. Very tolerate of drought. Very attractive yard tree when allowed to grow to its full size.

Vegetable yield - per person planning Edit

Man does not live by bread, or calorie crops alone. The following are estimates of plants per person, intensive planting spacing, and amount of square feet to be planted for a little more variety in "American" crops. As I add up the space, for each person you are planting around 338 square feet.

Asparagus, inches spacing for intensive planting: 15 - number of square feet to be planted: 31.50 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 10 - 15 plants 10 - 15 plants Beans, Lima, inches spacing for intensive planting: 4 - number of square feet to be planted: 3.30 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 15 - 16 plants 45 - 60 plants Beans, Pole, inches spacing for intensive planting: 6 - number of square feet to be planted: 6.50 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 10 - 12 plants 16 - 20 plants Beans, Bush, inches spacing for intensive planting: 4 - number of square feet to be planted: 8.25 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 30 - 45 plants 45 - 60 plants Beets, inches spacing for intensive planting: 2 - number of square feet to be planted: 2.70 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 30 - 60 plants 60 - 120 plants Broccoli, inches spacing for intensive planting: 12 - number of square feet to be planted: 8.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 5 plants 5 - 6 plants Brussels Sprouts, in. spacing for intensive planting: 15 - number of square feet to be planted: 10.90 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 2 - 5 plants 5 - 8 plants Cabbage, inches spacing for intensive planting: 15 - number of square feet to be planted: 12.50 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 4 plants 5 - 10 plants Cabbage, Chinese, inches spacing for intensive planting: 10 - number of square feet to be planted: 5.50 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 4 - 12 plants 4 - 12 plants Carrots, inches spacing for intensive planting: 2 - number of square feet to be planted: 2.70 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 30 - 60 plants 60 - 90 plants Cauliflower, inches spacing for intensive planting: 15 - number of square feet to be planted: 17.20 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 5 plants 8 - 12 plants Chard, Swiss, inches spacing for intensive planting: 6 - number of square feet to be planted: 2.75 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 5 plants 8 - 12 plants Collards & Kale, in. spacing for intensive planting: 12 - number of square feet to be planted: 10.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 5 - 10 plants 5 - 10 plants Eggplant, inches spacing for intensive planting: 18, seeds sprout at 80 F. - number of square feet to be planted: 9.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 2 - 3 plants 2 - 3 plants Lettuce, Head, in. spacing for intensive planting: 10 - number of square feet to be planted: 16.80 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 12 plants 12 plants Lettuce, Leaf, in. spacing for intensive planting: 4 - number of square feet to be planted: 6.60 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 30 plants 30 plants Muskmelon, inches spacing for intensive planting: 18 - number of square feet to be planted: 6.75 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 5 plants ------------ Mustard, inches spacing for intensive planting: 6 - number of square feet to be planted: 7.50 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 10 - 20 plants 20 - 30 plants Okra, inches spacing for intensive planting: 12 - number of square feet to be planted: 10.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 4 - 6 plants 6 - 10 plants Onions (plants/sets), inches spacing for intensive planting: 2 - number of square feet to be planted: 5.90 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 18 - 30 plants 180 - 300 plants Peas, inches spacing for intensive planting: 2 - number of square feet to be planted: 9.90 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 90 - 120 plants 240 - 360 plants Peppers, inches spacing for intensive planting: 12 - number of square feet to be planted: 6.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 5 plants 3 - 5 plants Potatoes, Irish, in spacing for intensive planting: 10 - number of square feet to be planted: 82.80 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 60 - 120 plants 60 - 120 plants Pumpkins, inches spacing for intensive planting: 24 - number of square feet to be planted: 8.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 1 - 2 hills 1 - 2 hills Radishes, inches spacing for intensive planting: 2 - number of square feet to be planted: 0.54 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 18 - 30 plants ------------ Spinach, nutritional reputation lies in its high oxalic acid content inches spacing for intensive planting: 4 - number of square feet to be planted: 4.95 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 15 - 30 plants 30 - 45 plants Squash, Summer, in spacing for intensive planting: 18 - number of square feet to be planted: 9.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 2 - 3 hills 2 - 3 hills Squash, Winter, in spacing for intensive planting: 24 - number of square feet to be planted: 8.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 1 - 3 hills 1 - 3 hills Tomato stems will sprout roots if buried, so clone the best. Spacing for intensive planting: 18 - number of square feet to be planted: 18.00 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 3 - 5 plants 5 - 10 plants Turnip, inches spacing for intensive planting: 4 - number of square feet to be planted: 3.30 - to achieve a crop of fresh and storage respectively of: 15 - 30 plants 15 - 30 plants



Mess - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5

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