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This page is a soft redirect. Examples of toxic heavy metals

A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.[1] The term has particular application to Cd, Hg, Pb and As,[2] all of which appear in the World Health Organisation's list of 10 chemicals of major public concern.[3] Other examples include Cr, Template:Cobalt, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, Sb and Tl.

Toxic heavy metals are found naturally in the earth, and become concentrated as a result of human caused activities. They enter plant, animal and human tissues via inhalation, diet and manual handling, and can bind to, and interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. The toxic effects of As, Hg and Pb were known to the ancients but methodical studies of the toxicity of some heavy metals appear to date from only 1868. In humans, heavy metal poisoning is generally treated by the administration of chelating agents. Some elements regarded as toxic heavy metals are essential, in small quantities, for human health.

Contamination sourcesEdit

File:Tetraethyllead-3D-balls.png

Toxic heavy metals are found naturally in the earth, and become concentrated as a result of human caused activities. Common sources are from mining and industrial wastes; vehicle emissions; lead-acid batteries; fertilisers; paints; treated woods; plastics floating on the world's oceans;[5] and aging water supply infrastructure.[6] Lead is the most prevalent toxic heavy metal contaminant.[7] As a component of tetra-ethyl lead it was used extensively in gasoline during the 1930s-1970s.[8] Lead levels in the aquatic environments of industrialised societies have been estimated to be two to three times those of pre-industrial levels.[9] Although the use of leaded gasoline was largely phased out in North America by 1996, soils next to roads built before this time retain high lead concentrations. Lead (from lead azide or lead styphnate used in firearms) gradually accumulates at firearms training grounds, contaminating the local environment and exposing range employees to a risk of lead poisoning.[10]

Entry routesEdit

Toxic heavy metals enter plant, animal and human tissues via air inhalation, diet and manual handling. Motor vehicle emissions are a major source of airborne contaminants including As, Cd, Template:Cobalt, Ni, Pb, Sb, Template:Vanadium, Zn, Pt, Pd and Rh.[11] Water sources (groundwater, lakes, streams and rivers) can be polluted by toxic heavy metals leaching from industrial and consumer waste; acid rain can exacerbate this process by releasing toxic heavy metals trapped in soils.[12] Plants are exposed to toxic heavy metals through the uptake of water; animals eat these plants; ingestion of plant- and animal-based foods are the largest sources of toxic heavy metals in humans.[13] Absorption through skin contact, for example from contact with soil, is another potential source of toxic heavy metal contamination.[14] Toxic heavy metals can bioaccumulate in organisms as they are hard to metabolize (process and eliminate).[15]

Detrimental effectsEdit

Toxic heavy metals "can bind to vital cellular components, such as structural proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids, and interfere with their functioning."[16] Symptoms and effects can vary according to the metal or metal compound, and the dose involved. Broadly, long-term exposure to toxic heavy metals can have carcinogenic, central and peripheral nervous system and circulatory effects. For humans, typical presentations associated with exposure to any of the "classical"[17] toxic heavy metals, or chromium (another toxic heavy metal) or arsenic (a metalloid), are shown in the table.[18]

Exposure risk Acute exposure: Severe harm or death
from a single exposure (usually a day or less)
Chronic exposure: Irreversible side effects
from long-term exposure (often months or years)
Cadmium poisoning Pneumonitis (lung inflammation) Lung cancer
Osteomalacia (softening of bones)
Proteinuria (excess protein in urine; possible kidney damage)
Mercury poisoning Diarrhea
Fever
Vomiting
Stomatitis (inflammation of gums and mouth)
Nausea
Nephrotic syndrome (nonspecific kidney disorder)
Neurasthenia (neurotic disorder)
Parageusia (metallic taste)
Pink Disease (pain and pink discoloration of hands and feet)
Tremor
Lead poisoning Encephalopathy (brain dysfunction)
Nausea
Vomiting
Anemia
Encephalopathy
Foot drop/wrist drop (palsy)
Nephropathy (kidney disease)
Chromium toxicity Gastrointestinal hemorrhage (bleeding) 
Hemolysis (red blood cell destruction)
Acute renal failure
Pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring)
Lung cancer
Arsenic poisoning Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Encephalopathy
Multi-organ effects
Arrhythmia
Painful neuropathy
Diabetes
Hypopigmentation/Hyperkeratosis
Cancer

HistoryEdit

The toxic effects of arsenic, mercury and lead were known to the ancients but methodical studies of the overall toxicity of heavy metals appear to date from only 1868. In that year, Wanklyn and Chapman speculated on the adverse effects of the heavy metals "As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Template:Manganese" in drinking water. They noted an "absence of investigation" and were reduced to "the necessity of pleading for the collection of data."[19] In 1884, Blake described an apparent connection between toxicity and the atomic weight of an element.[20] The following sections provide historical thumbnails for the "classical" toxic heavy metals (As, Hg and Pb) and some more recent examples (Cr and Cd).

ArsenicEdit

File:Orpiment mineral.jpg

Arsenic, as realgar (As
4
S
4
) and orpiment (As
2
S
3
), was known in ancient times. Strabo (64–50 BCE – c. AD 24?), a Greek geographer and historian,[21] wrote that only slaves were employed in realgar and orpiment mines since they would inevitably die from the toxic effects of the fumes given off from the ores. Arsenic contaminated beer poisoned over 6,000 people in the Manchester area of England in 1900, and is thought to have killed at least 70 victims.[22] Clare Luce, American ambassador to Italy from 1953 to 1956, suffered from arsenic poisoning. Its source was traced to flaking arsenic-laden paint on the ceiling of her bedroom. She may also have eaten food contaminated by arsenic in flaking ceiling paint in the embassy dining room.[23] Ground water contaminated by arsenic, as of 2014, "is still poisoning millions of people in Asia."[24]

MercuryEdit

File:Saint Isaac's Cathedral in SPB.jpeg

The first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, it is reported, died of ingesting mercury pills that were intended to give him eternal life.[25] The phrase "mad as a hatter" is likely a reference to mercury poisoning among milliners (so-called "mad hatter disease"), as mercury-based compounds were once used in the manufacture of felt hats in the 18th and 19th century.[26] Historically, gold amalgam (an alloy with mercury) was widely used in gilding, leading to numerous casualties among the workers. It is estimated that during the construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral alone, 60 workers died from the gilding of the main dome.[27] Outbreaks of methylmercury poisoning occurred in several places in Japan during the 1950s due to industrial discharges of mercury into rivers and coastal waters. The best-known instances were in Minamata and Niigata. In Minamata alone, more than 600 people died due to what became known as Minamata disease. More than 21,000 people filed claims with the Japanese government, of which almost 3000 became certified as having the disease. In 22 documented cases, pregnant women who consumed contaminated fish showed mild or no symptoms but gave birth to infants with severe developmental disabilities.[28] Since the industrial Revolution, mercury levels have tripled in many near-surface seawaters, especially around Iceland and Antarctica.[29]

LeadEdit

File:Dutch boy collier white lead.png
The adverse effects of lead were known to the ancients. In the 2nd century BC the Greek botanist Nicander described the colic and paralysis seen in lead-poisoned people.[30] Dioscorides, a Greek physician who is thought to have lived in the 1st century CE,[31] wrote that lead "makes the mind give way". Lead was used extensively in Roman aqueducts from about 500 BC to 300 AD.[32] Julius Caesar's engineer, Vitruvius, reported, "water is much more wholesome from earthenware pipes than from lead pipes. For it seems to be made injurious by lead, because white lead is produced by it, and this is said to be harmful to the human body."[33] During the 17th and 18th centuries, people in Devon were afflicted by a condition referred to as Devon colic; this was discovered to be due to the imbibing of lead-contaminated cider. In 2013, the World Health Organization estimated that lead poisoning resulted in 143,000 deaths, and "contribute[d] to 600,000 new cases of children with intellectual disabilities", each year.[34] In 2015, drinking water lead levels in north-eastern Tasmania, Australia, were reported to reach over 50 times national drinking water guidelines. The source of the contamination was attributed to “a combination of dilapidated drinking water infrastructure, including lead jointed pipelines, end-of-life polyvinyl chloride pipes and household plumbing.”[35]

ChromiumEdit

File:Potassium-chromate-sample.jpg

Chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known since at least the late 19th century.[36] In 1890, Newman described the elevated cancer risk of workers in a chromate dye company.[37] Chromate-induced dermatitis was reported in aircraft workers during World War II.[38] In 1963, an outbreak of dermatitis, ranging from erythema to exudative eczema, occurred amongst 60 automobile factory workers in England. The workers had been wet-sanding chromate-based primer paint that had been applied to car bodies.[39] In Australia, chromium was released from the Newcastle Orica explosives plant on August 8, 2011. Up to 20 workers at the plant were exposed as were 70 nearby homes in Stockton. The town was only notified three days after the release and the accident sparked a major public controversy, with Orica criticised for playing down the extent and possible risks of the leak, and the state Government attacked for their slow response to the incident.[40]

CadmiumEdit

File:Cadmium-crystal bar.jpg

Cadmium exposure is a phenomenon of the early 20th century, and onwards. In Japan in 1910, the Mitsui Mining and Smelting Company began discharging cadmium into the Jinzugawa river, as a byproduct of mining operations. Residents in the surrounding area subsequently consumed rice grown in cadmium contaminated irrigation water. They experienced softening of the bones and kidney failure. The origin of these symptoms was not clear; possibilities raised at the time included "a regional or bacterial disease or lead poisoning."[41] In 1955, cadmium was identified as the likely cause and in 1961 the source was directly linked to mining operations in the area.[42] In February 2010, cadmium was found in Wal-Mart exclusive Miley Cyrus jewelry. Wal-Mart continued to sell the jewelry until May, when covert testing organised by Associated Press confirmed the original results.[43] In June 2010 cadmium was detected in the paint used on promotional drinking glasses for the movie Shrek Forever After, sold by McDonald's Restaurants, triggering a recall of 12 million glasses.[44]

RemediationEdit

File:Metal-EDTA.svg

In humans, heavy metal poisoning is generally treated by the administration of chelating agents.[46] These are chemical compounds, such as CaNa2 EDTA (calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate) that convert heavy metals to chemically inert forms that can be excreted without further interaction with the body. Chelates are not without side effects and can also remove beneficial metals from the body. Vitamin and mineral supplements are sometimes co-administered for this reason.[47]

Soils contaminated by toxic heavy metals can be re-mediated by one or more of the following technologies: isolation; immobilization; toxicity reduction; physical separation; or extraction. Isolation involves the use of caps, membranes or below-ground barriers in an attempt to quarantine the contaminated soil. Immobilization aims to alter the properties of the soil so as to hinder the mobility of the heavy contaminants. Toxicity reduction attempts to oxidise or reduce the toxic heavy metal ions, via chemical or biological means into less toxic or mobile forms. Physical separation involves the removal of the contaminated soil and the separation of the metal contaminants by mechanical means. Extraction is an on or off-site process that uses chemicals, high-temperature volatization, or electrolysis to extract contaminants from soils. The process or processes used will vary according to contaminant and the characteristics of the site.[48]

BenefitsEdit

Some elements regarded as toxic heavy metals are essential, in small quantities, for human health. These elements include Template:Vanadium, Template:Manganese, Fe, Template:Cobalt, Cu, Zn, Se, Template:Strontium and Template:Molybdenum.[49] A deficiency of these essential metals may increase susceptibility to heavy metal poisoning.[50]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. Srivastava & Goyal 2010, p. 2
  2. Brathwaite & Rabone 1985, p. 363
  3. World Health Organisation 2015
  4. Wright 2002, p. 288
  5. Howell et al. 2012
  6. Harvey, Handley & Taylor 2015
  7. Di Maio 2001, p. 527
  8. Lovei 1998, p. 15
  9. Perry & Vanderklein 1996, p. 336
  10. Houlton 2014, p. 50
  11. Balasubramanian, He & Wang 2009, p. 476
  12. Worsztynowicz & Mill 1995, p. 361
  13. Radojevic & Bashkin 1999, p. 406
  14. Qu et al. 2014, p. 144
  15. Pezzarossa, Gorini & Petruzelli 2011, p. 94
  16. Lanids, Sofield & Yu 2000, p. 269
  17. Neilen & Marvin 2008, p. 10
  18. Afal & Wiener 2014
  19. Wanklyn & Chapman 1868, pp. 73–8; Cameron 1871, p. 484
  20. Blake 1884
  21. Dueck 2000, pp. 1–3, 46, 53
  22. Dyer 2009
  23. Whorton 2011, p. 356
  24. Notman 2014
  25. Zhao, Zhu & Sui 2006
  26. Waldron 1983
  27. Emsely 2011, p. 326
  28. Davidson, Myers & Weiss 2004, p. 1025
  29. New Scientist August 2014, p. 4
  30. Pearce 2007; Needleman 2004
  31. Rogers 2000, p. 41
  32. Gilbert & Weiss 2006
  33. Prioreschi 1998, p. 279
  34. World Health Organization 2013
  35. Harvey, Handley & Taylor 2015
  36. Barceloux & Barceloux 1999
  37. Newman 1890
  38. Haines & Nieboer 1988, p. 504
  39. National Research Council 1974, p. 68
  40. Tovey 2011; Jones 2011; O'Brien & Aston
  41. Vallero & Letcher 2013, p. 240
  42. Vallero & Letcher 2013, pp. 239–241
  43. Pritchard 2010
  44. Mulvihill & Pritchard 2010
  45. Cs uros 1997, p. 124
  46. Blann & Ahmed 2014, p. 465
  47. American Cancer Society 2008; National Capital Poison Center 2010
  48. Evanko & Dzombak 1997, pp. 1, 14–40
  49. Bánfalvi 2011, p. 12
  50. Chowdhury 1987

ReferencesEdit

  • Heavy Metal Toxicity at eMedicine
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