Sustainable Civilization: From the Grass Roots Up
Factoids Appendix - Factoids 2
If you needed to store a calorie crop such as rice, you would need to store a little over 370 pounds. Human Daily Needs and Effluents Reference: NASA RP-1324, "Designing for Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems", Paul O. Wieland, 1994, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Also see NASA-STD-3000, Man Systems Integration Standards, Figure 188.8.131.52.5-1, page 5-120.
lbs kg Oxygen 1.84 0.84 Food solids 1.36 0.62 Water in food 2.54 1.15 Food prep water 1.67 0.76 Drink 3.56 1.62 Metabolized water 0.76 0.35 Hand & face wash water 9.00 4.09 Dish wash water 5.45 2.48 Shower water 6.00 2.73 Urine flush water 1.09 0.49 Clothes wash water 27.50 12.50
Carbon Dioxide 2.20 1.00 LiOH to extract CO2 1.57 0.71 H2O, Respiration and 5.02 2.28 Perspiration Food Preparation, 0.08 0.036 Latent Water Urine 3.31 1.50 Urine flush water 1.09 0.49 Feces water 0.20 0.091 Sweat solids 0.04 0.018 Urine solids 0.13 0.059 Feces solids 0.07 0.032 Hygiene water 27.68 12.58 Clothes wash water 27.50 12.50
These values are per person per day, based on an average metabolic rate of 136.7 W/person (11,200 Btu/person/day) and a respiration quotient of 0.87. The values will be higher when activity levels are greater and for larger than average people. The respiration quotient is the molar ratio of CO2 generated to O2 consumed. Human Speed: Sprinter over 200 meters, 22.64 mph Mile runner, 19.56 mph Marathon, 12.59 mph Mental state – Fear not only brings up ”fight or flight”, it also reduces your very ability for thought out and dexterous responses. At 115 beats per minute, fine motor skills are severely compromised. At a heart rate of 145, complex motor skills suffer. You could easily find yourself unable to dial a combination, insert and turn a key, etc. (Think of fumbling for a gun safe, or padlock, in the dark while you’re frightened silly.)
One gallon of fuel oil / gasoline can release around 144,000 BTU of energy, equal to around 36,700 watt hour of electrical power. Human oil use in 2003 was around 30 billions barrels, 1,260,000,000,000 gallons, or approximately 181,440,000,000,000,000 BTU of energy.
A gallon of gasoline contains energy equal to around 31,000 food calories. If a person needs 2000 calories per day, then if we could drink gasoline we would only need one 8 ounce cup per day, and a gallon of gas would represent the full day / labor of 15.5 people. Scaling this up, 30 billion barrels burned in a year represents the rough equivalent of the labor of over 50 billion people.
Fuel energy content per pound: Gasoline around 18,000 BTU Coal around 10,000 BTU Wood around 5,000 BTU
From each typical barrel of oil we get:
GAL Product 00.3 Other stuff 00.2 Kerosene 00.5 Lubricants 01.2 Feedstock 01.3 Asphalt 01.8 Petroleum Coke 01.9 Still gas 01.9 Liquefied gas 02.3 Residual fuel oil 04.1 Jet fuel 09.2 Distillate fuel oil 19.5 Gasoline
One practical way to compare different fuels is to convert them into British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is approximately equal to the energy released in the burning of a wood match. The average single-family household consumed 98 million Btu of energy in a recent year, so on the family level, 1 million Btu is a meaningful quantity. 1 million Btu equals about 8 gallons of motor gasoline. 1 billion Btu equals all the electricity that 30 average Americans use in 1 year. 1 trillion Btu is equal to 474 100-ton railroad cars of coal intended for electric utilities. 1 quadrillion Btu is equal to 470 thousand barrels of oil every day for 1 year. In 1993, the Nation used 84 quadrillion Btu of energy: 34 quadrillion Btu of petroleum, 21 quadrillion Btu of natural gas, 19 quadrillion Btu of coal, and 10 quadrillion Btu of other energy sources. 1 ton of coal contains 21 million Btu, over three times as much energy 1 barrel of oil contains about 6.2 million Btu Gasoline contains an average of 5.25 million Btu per barrel Jet fuel (kerosene-type) contains 5.67 million Btu per barrel.
Approximate fuel relationships: • 1 barrel (bbl) crude oil = 42* gallons = 5.8 x 106 Btu = 6.12 x 109 J • 1 standard cubic foot (std ft3) of natural gas (SCF) = 1000 Btu • 1 gallon gasoline = 1.24 x 105 Btu • 106 cubic feet of natural gas = 172 barrels of crude oil • 1 ton coal = 20-40 x 106 Btu • 1 lbm bituminous coal = 1.3 x 104 Btu • 1 ton uranium-235 (235U) = 70 x 1012 Btu • 1000 bbl/day of oil = 2.117 x 1012 Btu/yr • 1 million barrels of oil per day (1 MBOPD) = 5.8 x 1012 Btu/day = 80 million tons per year of coal = 5.8 x 109 ft3 per day of natural gas Approximate calorific values: • Petroleum: = 5.8 x 106 Btu/bbl = 1.4 x 105 Btu/U.S. gallon = 19,000 Btu/lbm (using a density of 7.4 lbm/gallon) = 42,000 Btu/kg • Coal: = 6,000 to 15,000 Btu/lbm, depending on the rank of coal = 13,200-33,000 Btu/kg • Natural gas: = 1000 Btu/ft3 = 25,000 Btu/lbm (using a density of 0.04 lbm/ft3) = 55,000 Btu/kg • U-235: = 3.3 x 1010 Btu/lbm = 7.3 x 1010 Btu/kg Fuel requirements for a 1000 MWe power plant (2.4 x 1011 Btu/day input): • Coal: 9000 tons/day or 1 unit train load (100 90-ton cars)/day • Oil: 40,000 bbl/day or 1 tanker per week • Natural gas: 2.4 x 108 SCF/day • Uranium (as 235U): 3 kg/day Energy needs: • U.S. Total Energy Consumption (1994) = 88 x 1015 Btu (88 Quads) = 40.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day = 92.8 exajoules (EJ) Everyday usage and energy equivalencies: • 1 barrel of oil = driving 1400 km (840 miles) in average car • Electricity of city of 100,000 takes 4000 bbl per day of oil • State of California energy needs for 8 hours = 106 bbl = 1 million barrels • 1 gal gasoline = 11 kW-hr electricity (@ 30% generation efficiency) = 5 hours of operation of standard air conditioner = 200 days of electric clock = 48 hours of color TV = average summer days solar energy incident on 2 m2 (22 ft2) One million Btu equals approximately: • 90 pounds of coal • 125 pounds of oven-dried wood • 10 therms of natural gas • 1.1 day energy consumption per capita in the U.S. • 1 million Btu (MBtu) of fossil fuels burned at a power plant that can generate about 100 kW-hr of electricity Power data: • 1000 MWe utility, at 60% load factor, generates 5.3 x 109 kW-hr/year, enough for a city of about 1 million people • U.S. per capita power use = 11 kW • Human, sitting = 60 watts = 0.86 food Calories/minute • Human, running = 1000 watts = 14.34 food Calories/minute • Automobile at 55 mph = 28 kW
U.S. DOE Oil Factoids (2004) 7.446 Billion Barrel (BBL) / Year Consumption
21.900 BBL Continental U.S. Remaining Supply - 2 Year & 343 Days (IF we could pump to meet demand)
1.741 BBL / Year Continental U.S. Pumping Rate - 23.38%
(Amount of U.S. demand that can be met, which could probably be continued for a little over 12 years
10.300 BBL Estimated ANWAR Supply - + 1 year of U.S. demand
.492 BBL ANWAR Estimated Pumping rate in 2010 - 6.6%
(Amount of U.S. demand that can be met, but as it comes online the continental U.S. supplies would be falling, so in 2012 the additional 6% may not replace the exhausting wells, it should however be able to provide the 6% until around 2032
.727 BBL Strategic Reserve Storage - 9%
(The reserve represents about 9% of annual demand)
1.5695 BBL / Year Maximum Pumping Rate - 21%
(It can only be pumped at 21% of annual demand rate, so it could supplement at this rate for a period of 169 days)
With water, every one foot height results in .433 PSI at the bottom, or every 2.31 foot height results in one PSI. For example, a modest 40 PSI pressure in household water lines equals water standing in a tank around 92.4 feet above the level of use. Acceleration of gravity on Earth is 32 ft. per second, 9.8 meters per second.
Starting Convert Multiply With To By
BTU/hr Horsepower .0003929
" Watt/hr .2931
Kilowatt/hr Horsepower 1.341
Distance. The general formula for how far away a “level” horizon is for a given height of observer works out to be d=1.4 times the square root of h. That is the distance of the horizon in miles is 1.4 times the square root of the height of the observer in feet.
(CIA FACT BOOK)
Globally, the 20th century was marked by: (a) two devastating world wars; (b) the Great Depression of the 1930s; (c) the end of vast colonial empires; (d) rapid advances in science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (US) to the landing on the moon; (e) the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; (f) a sharp rise in living standards in North America, Europe, and Japan; (g) increased concerns about the environment, including loss of forests, shortages of energy and water, the decline in biological diversity, and air pollution; (h) the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and (i) the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower.
The planet's population continues to explode 6,525,170,264 (July 2006 est.) 1 billion in 1820 2 billion in 1930 3 billion in 1960 4 billion in 1974 5 billion in 1988 6 billion in 2000.
For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth in science and technology raises both hopes (e.g., advances in medicine) and fears (e.g., development of even more lethal weapons of war).
total: 510.072 million sq km (196,939,112 sq mile)
land: 148.94 million sq km (57,505,825 sq mile) (36,803,728,300 acre)
H2O: 361.132 million sq km (139,433,286 sq mile )
note: 70.8% of the world's surface is water, 29.2% is land Area - comparative land area about 16 times the size of the US. The land boundaries in the world total 250,708 km (not counting shared boundaries twice).
44 nations and other areas are landlocked.
Coastline: 356,000 km
Terrain: The greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean, the highest point is Mount Everest 8,850 m
arable land: 13.31% (4,898,576,237 acre)
permanent crops: 4.71% (1,733,455,603 acre)
other: 81.98% (2005) Irrigated land: 2,770,980 sq km (2003) Natural hazards: Large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions) Environment - current issues: Large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion Geography - note: The world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13-billion-year age estimated for the universe
0-14 years: 27.4% (male 919,219,446/female 870,242,271) 15-64 years: 65.2% (male 2,152,066,888/female 2,100,334,722) 65 years and over: 7.4% (male 213,160,216/female 270,146,721)
total: 27.6 years male: 27 years female: 28.2 years
Population growth rate: 1.14% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 20.05 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) Death rate: 8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 48.87 deaths/1,000 live births male: 50.98 deaths/1,000 live births female: 46.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.77 years male: 63.16 years female: 66.47 years (2006 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.59 children born/woman (2006 est.) Religions: Christians 33.03% (of which Roman Catholics 17.33%, Protestants 5.8%, Orthodox 3.42%, Anglicans 1.23%) Muslims 20.12% Hindus 13.34% Buddhists 5.89% Sikhs 0.39% Jews 0.23% other religions 12.61% non-religious 12.03%, atheists 2.36% (2004 est.)
Languages: Mandarin Chinese 13.69% Spanish 5.05% English 4.84% Hindi 2.82% Portuguese 2.77% Bengali 2.68% Russian 2.27% Japanese 1.99% Standard German 1.49% Wu Chinese 1.21% (2004 est.)
Literacy Definition: age 15 and over can read and write. Note: over two-thirds of the world's 785 million illiterate adults are found in only eight countries (India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Egypt); of all the illiterate adults in the world, two-thirds are women; extremely low literacy rates are concentrated in three regions, South and West Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Arab states, where around one-third of the men and half of all women are illiterate (2005 est.)
total population: 82% male: 87% female: 77%
Government Administrative divisions: 268 nations
Economy - overview: Global output rose by 4.4% in 2005, led by China (9.3%), India (7.6%), and Russia (5.9%). No gain for Italy with the United States at (3.5%).
GDP (purchasing power parity):
GWP (gross world product): $65 trillion (2006 est.)
Labor force: 3.001 billion (2005 est.) Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 41% industry: 20.7% services: 38.4%
Electricity - production:
17.15 trillion kWh (2004 est.) Electricity - consumption: 16.18 trillion kWh (2004 est.) Electricity - exports: 562.2 billion kWh (2004) Electricity - imports: 568.5 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
83 million bbl/day (2004 est.) Oil - consumption: 82.59 million bbl/day (2004 est.) Oil - proved reserves: 1.326 trillion bbl (1 January 2002 est.)
Natural gas - production:
2.824 trillion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 2.82 trillion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - exports: 810.9 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - imports: 828 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 172.2 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Disputes - international: Stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 329 international land boundaries separate the 193 independent states and 73 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting in sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; maritime states have claimed limits and have so far established over 130 maritime boundaries and joint development zones to allocate ocean resources and to provide for national security at sea; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary in intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; most disputes over the alignment of political boundaries are confined to short segments and are today less common and less hostile than borderland, resource, and territorial disputes; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries, however, encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic and cultural clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation around the world; disputes over islands at sea or in rivers frequently form the source of territorial and boundary conflict; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially petroleum) resources, fisheries, and arable land; nonetheless, most nations cooperate to clarify their international boundaries and to resolve territorial and resource disputes peacefully; regional discord today prevails not so much between the armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance and welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope with resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, and environmental degradation.
Climate: Two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones form a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates.
Natural resources: The rapid depletion of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address United States - North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W North America Area: total: 9,826,630 sq km (2,428,203,441.84 acre) land: 9,161,923 sq km water: 664,707 sq km
Area - comparative: About half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; almost two and a half times the size of the European Union.
Land boundaries: total: 12,034 km border countries: Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska) Mexico 3,141 km
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28 km Coastline: 19,924 km
territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: not specified
Climate: Mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains Terrain: Vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Death Valley -86 m highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m Natural resources: Coal, Cu, Pb, Template:Molybdenum, phosphates, U, bauxite, Au, Fe, Hg, Ni, potash, Ag, W, Zn, petroleum, natural gas, timber
arable land: 18.01% (437,319,439.88 acre) permanent crops: 0.21% other: 81.78% (2005)
223,850 sq km (2003) Natural hazards: Tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the midwest and southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development Environment - current issues: Air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification.
298,444,215 (July 2006 est.)
0-14 years: 20.4% (male 31,095,847/female 29,715,872) 15-64 years: 67.2% (male 100,022,845/female 100,413,484) 65 years and over: 12.5% (male 15,542,288/female 21,653,879)
Median age: total: 36.5 years male: 35.1 years female: 37.8 years
Population growth rate: 0.91% (2006 est.) Birth rate: 14.14 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
8.26 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.43 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.09 deaths/1,000 live births female: 5.74 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.85 years male: 75.02 years female: 80.82 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.09 children born/woman (2006 est.) American Ethnic groups: White 81.7%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2% (2003 est.) Note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.)
Religions: Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10%, none 10% (2002 est.)
Languages: English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7%
Literacy: Age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99%
Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Economy - overview: The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $43,500. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.
US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. The response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 showed the remarkable resilience of the economy. The war in March-April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq, and the subsequent occupation of Iraq, required major shifts in national resources to the military. The rise in GDP in 2004-06 was undergirded by substantial gains in labor productivity. Hurricane Katrina caused extensive damage in the Gulf Coast region in August 2005, but had a small impact on overall GDP growth for the year. Soaring oil prices in 2005 and 2006 threatened inflation and unemployment, yet the economy continued to grow through year-end 2006. Imported oil accounts for about two-thirds of US consumption. Long-term problems include inadequate investment in economic infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, sizable trade and budget deficits, and stagnation of family income in the lower economic groups.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$12.98 trillion (2006 est.)
(Author note – at the same time, the Secretary of the Treasury reports nearly $9 trillion in “on the books” federal debt, and around $50 trillion of “off the books” debt. The U.S. federal government debt is around 5 times the entire economic productivity of the nation.
In other worlds, were the interest rate to be 20%, and the federal government were to tax at 100% all economic activity, it would perhaps just pay the interest debt.
If the interest rate were to be 5%, the federal government would have to take 25% of the GDP just to pay interest.)
$13.22 trillion (2006 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (2006 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $43,500 (2006 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 0.9% industry: 20.4% services: 78.6% (2006 est.)
151.4 million (includes unemployed)
Labor force - by occupation:
farming, forestry, and fishing 0.7% manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts 22.9% managerial, professional, and technical 34.9% sales and office 25% other services 16.5%
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2%
Electricity - production: 3.979 trillion kWh
Electricity - consumption: 3.717 trillion kWh Electricity - exports: 22.9 billion kWh Electricity - imports: 34.21 billion kWh (2004) Oil - production: 7.61 million bbl/day Oil - consumption: 20.73 million bbl/day Oil - exports: 1.048 million bbl/day Oil - imports: 13.15 million bbl/day Oil - proved reserves: 22.45 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production: 531.1 billion cu m Natural gas - consumption: 635.1 billion cu m Natural gas - exports: 24.18 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - imports: 120.6 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.451 trillion cu m (2005 est.)
Current account balance: $-862.3 billion (2006 est.)
Exports: $1.024 trillion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2% industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8% capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0% consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2003)
Disputes - international: Prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure in the border region strain water-sharing arrangements with Mexico; the US has stepped up efforts to stem nationals from Mexico, Central America, and other parts of the world from crossing illegally into the US from Mexico; illegal immigrants from the Caribbean, notably Haiti and the Dominican Republic, attempt to enter the US through Florida by sea; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes with Canada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; US and Canada seek greater cooperation in monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other state; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island.
Gauge OHM Max Safe
Resistence Current Per 100ft. 14 .253 15 12 .159 20 10 .100 30 8 .063 55 6 .040 75 4 .025 95 2 .016 130 0 .010 170 00 .008 195 000 .006 225 0000 .005 260
Factoids Appendix - Factoids 2